新SAT语法解析

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  • 2016-03-23 10:38
  • 编辑:halongre

华威海外考试研究中心孙亚楠 随着1月23日最后一场旧SAT考试落下帷幕,考生们终于迎来了闪亮登场的新SAT。对于亚太考区而言,将于5月份迎来首场新SAT考试。那么改革后的SAT考试发生了怎样的

华威海外考试研究中心 孙亚楠
 
随着1月23日最后一场旧SAT考试落下帷幕,考生们终于迎来了闪亮登场的新SAT。对于亚太考区而言,将于5月份迎来首场新SAT考试。那么改革后的SAT考试发生了怎样的变化?对于即将备战新SAT的考生而言,应当如何来备考?这些都成为考生们最为关心的问题。那么今天华威海外考试研究中心的专家就带领新SAT的考生们一起探究新SAT语法部分的变化及备考的重点和方向。
 
新SAT在语法部分的变化还是非常显著的。新SAT语法题以篇章的形式出现,旨在考查考生对篇章阅读的理解,尤其是对文章逻辑性和连贯性的把握,这无疑对考生提出了更高的语言能力要求。下面将会重点分析新SAT语法部分的变化及考察侧重点。
 
一、出题形式
旧SAT考试的语法部分共占49道题目,时间为35分钟,包括三类题型:句子改进题(improve sentences), 句子找错题(identify sentence errors)和段落改进题(improve paragraphs)。
 
新SAT考试语法部分以Writing and Language Test(写作语言测试)形式出现,共44题,时间依然为35分钟,但只包括一种题型即篇章改错题,总共涉及四篇文章,每篇文章出题数量为11道题。所涉及的四篇文章长度大约为400-450字左右,文章话题分别涉及职业发展类(career-related topic), 人文学科(humanities), 历史&社会学科(history/social studies), 科学类(science)。其中在科学类话题的文章中还会加入图表题,但是图表题是不会涉及到数学计算的。
 
二、考查重点
新SAT所考查的语法点侧重于篇章中句与句之间的逻辑关系,句子与段落之间的关系,需要考生从段落内容和文章结构入手才能解答题目。
 
新SAT OG中明确指出两大类考点:(1). expression of ideas(观点阐述);(2). standard English convention(标准英语使用)。其中,expression of ideas包括文章的扩展能力(development), 比如说句子与段落主旨的相关性;文章结构的组织能力(organization), 比方说句子的逻辑顺序,及有效的语言应用能力(effective language use), 比方说语言的简洁性等。Standard English conventions则旨在考查句子结构(sentence structure), 固定搭配(convention usage)和标点符号(conventions of punctuation)的惯常用法等方面的能力。
 
下面华威海外考试研究中心的专家将通过新SAT OG中具体的样题来对上述考点举例说明。
 
1. Development questions

18 His fine brushwork conveys detailed street-level activity: a peanut vendor pushing his cart on the sidewalk, a pigeon pecking for crumbs around a fire hydrant, an old man tending to a baby outside a doorway. His broader brushstrokes and sponge-painted shapes create majestic city skylines, with skyscrapers towering in the background, bridges connecting neighborhoods on either side of a river, and enormous ships maneuvering out of a busy harbor. To art critics and fans alike, these city scenes represent the innovative spirit of twentieth-century urban Modernism. 18. Which choice most effectively establishes the main topic of the paragraph?
(A) Kingman is considered a pioneer of the California Style school of painting.
(B) Although cities were his main subject, Kingman did occasionally paint natural landscapes.
(C) In his urban landscapes, Kingman captures the vibrancy of crowded cities.
(D) In 1929 Kingman moved to Oakland, California, where he attended the Fox Art School.
答案解析:本题要求考生能够从整个段落出发,总结出作者最想传达的意思。本段第一句话作者讲到“他的绘画详细传递出了城市街道的活力”,然后后面用很多细节性信息具体阐述了这一点,所以整段作者是围绕Kingman笔下的urban landscapes这个话题进行展开的,只有C项符合主题。
 
2. Organization questions
[1] Kingman was keenly interested in landscape painting from an early age. [2] In Hong Kong, where Kingman completed his schooling, teachers at that time customarily assigned students a formal “school name.” [3] His interest was so keen, in fact, that he was named after it. [4] The young boy who had been called Dong Moy Shu became Dong Kingman. [5] The name Kingman was selected for its two 14 parts, “king” and “man”;Cantonese for “scenery” and “composition.” [6] As Kingman developed as a painter, his works were often compared to15 paintings by Chinese landscape artists dating back to CE 960, a time when a strong tradition of landscape painting emerged in Chinese art. [7] Kingman, however, 16vacated from that tradition in a number of ways, most notably in that he chose to focus not on natural landscapes, such as mountains and rivers, but on cities.17 17. to make this paragraph most logical, sentence 3 should be placed
(A) where it is now.
(B) before sentence 1.
(C) after sentence 1.
(D) after sentence 4.
 
答案解析:本题要求考生判断某个句子应该放在文章中哪个位置以实现段落的连贯性。第3句提到“Kingman对landscape painting有着非常浓厚的兴趣以至于以它来命名”,文中第1句即讲到“Kingman对landscape painting有着浓厚的兴趣”,第2句即讲到命名的事情,所以放在这两句中间最为衔接,正确答案为C项。
 
3. Effective language use questions
If analysis of the traffic count indicates that there is more traffic than the current road as it is designed at this timecan efficiently accommodate, the transportation planner might recommend widening the road to add another lane 6.
A) NO CHANGE
B) current design of the road right now
C) road as it is now currently designed
D) current design of the road
答案解析:本题考查语言的简洁性。Current和at this time或者now重复,因此不能同时使用,只用其中一个即可。所以B和C都可排除,D项的表述最为简洁明了,为正确选项。
 
4. Sentence structure
A crowd of admiring spectators12 watched as Kingman squeezes dollops of paint from several tubes into a tin watercolor 13 box, from just a few primary colors, Kingman creates dozens of beautiful hues as he layers the translucent paint onto the paper on his easel. 12.
A. NO CHANGE
B.had watched
C. would watch
D. watches
答案解析:本题考查动词时态的前后一致性。因为整句话甚至整个段落作者使用的都是一般现在时(squeezes, creates, layers), 所以此处谓语动词要保持一致,因此选D。注意此处crowd为集合名词,a crowd of + 名词复数做主语时通常作为一个整体看待,因此谓语动词用单数。
 
5. Conventions of usage
Nutritionists consider Greek yogurt to be a healthy food: it is an excellent source of calcium and protein, serves 7to be a digestive aid, and 8 it contains few calories in its unsweetened low- and non-fat forms. 7.
A) NO CHANGE
B) as
C) like
D) for
答案解析:第7题考查固定搭配serve as, “充当……”,“起……作用”,所以毫无疑问选B。
 
6. Conventions of punctuation
But Jason 15 Box, an associate professor of geology at Ohio State believes that another factor added to the early 16thaw; the “dark snow” problem. 15. A) NO CHANGE
B) Box an associate professor of geology at Ohio State,
C) Box, an associate professor of geology at Ohio State,
D) Box, an associate professor of geology, at Ohio State
16. A) NO CHANGE
B) thaw; and it was
C) thaw:
D) thaw: being
答案解析:15)句中an associate professor of geology at Ohio State是Jason Box的同位语,是对主语的别称,前后要用逗号隔开,谓语是believes,所以选C。
16)冒号用于对前面内容的介绍或解释,the “dark snow” problem具体指前文出现的another factor, 所以选C。
 
以上6个考点之下还分别包括若干细小考点,我们会在后面的论文中一一总结呈现给各位考生。
 
三、增加图表题
新SAT语法题中加入了形式新颖的图表题,要求考生通过分析和概括图表中的数据来选出正确选项,并且还要兼顾此选项在语法上的正确性。图表题只是形式新颖,但其实并不算难,考生只需认真看图,注意图表注解,关注图表中的趋势变化和极值分布就很容易解题了。
 
Most of Greenland’s interior is covered by a thick layer of ice and compressed snow known as the Greenland Ice Sheet. The size of the ice sheet fluctuates seasonally: in summer, average daily high temperatures in Greenland can rise to slightly above 50 degrees Fahrenheit, partially melting the ice; in the winter, the sheet thickens as additional snow falls, and average daily low temperatures can drop 12 to as low as 20 degrees. 12. Which choice most accurately and effectively represents the information in the graph?
A) NO CHANGE
B) to 12 degrees Fahrenheit.
C) to their lowest point on December 13.
D) to 10 degrees Fahrenheit and stay there for months.
 

答案解析:看图表时考生需要注意图表的标题,横轴纵轴所代表的信息,图表纵轴表示温度,横轴表示月份,温度最低出现在Mar.5, 12°, 因此选B项。
 
四、新增词汇题
在改革后的SAT考试中,单词填空题被取消,在一定程度上弱化了单纯词汇的考查,但是这并不意味着新SAT不考查词汇了或者词汇的识记不重要了,完全不是这样的。改革后的SAT语法部分增加了词汇题,来考查单词在特定语境中是否恰当使用。新SAT OG中也明确提到“the students will revise text as needed to improve the exactness or content appropriateness of word choice”,即学生根据需要来修改文章用词,以改进单词使用的准确性和合适性。因此新SAT语法中对词汇的考查不仅要求考生要有一定的单词积累,而且要能够正确区分近义词,熟练掌握在不同的语境中单词的精确使用。
Given these solutions as well as the many health benefits of the food, the advantages of Greek yogurt 1 outdo the potential drawbacks of its production. A) NO CHANGE
B) defeat
C) outperform
D) outweigh
答案解析:因为该词是用来修饰advantages和drawbacks之间的关系,所以使用outweigh“超过”最合适,defeat意为“打败”之意,outperform和outdo则都为“胜过,做得比…好,赢过”这个意思,两者都不能表达出“比…多,大于”之意,所以选D项。
 
总体来说,因为新SAT刚经历改革,本身可利用的题目较少,语法部分最基本的语法点是没有太大变化的,所以考生需要利用旧SAT真题梳理并掌握基础语法点,比如说动词的时态、语态,主谓一致,平行结构,代词的人称、数,标点符号的使用等,练好基本功,此外还需要适应新题型,加强对文章中逻辑关系的把握,多分析段落和文章的结构以加强对文章的整体理解能力。
 
最后,因为关于新SAT的题目略显珍贵,所以在这里给大家推荐几套目前可以使用的新SAT考试书目:
1. 官方OG (The Official SAT Study Guide), 总共包含4套题目
2. 普林斯顿Cracking the NEW SAT, 总共包含6套题目
3. 卡普兰 8 Practice Tests for the NEW SAT, 8套题目
4. 巴朗 NEW SAT, 总共包含5套题目
 
新SAT考生最重要的还是要打好英文基础,在积累词汇的过程中要更加关注单词的使用,其次还要加强锻炼逻辑思维能力,比如说对段落和文章结构的分析,对文章主旨的把握,最后要及时了解改革后的变化趋势,制定正确的备考战略,积极应对新SAT考试。
 

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