SAT阅读之“对比阅读”

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  • 2016-03-03 13:56
  • 编辑:halongre

华威海外考试研究中心徐露露 纵观北美常见的几类考试---托福,GRE,GMAT,SSAT,ACT以及SAT,唯有SAT考试的阅读部分设置了对比阅读这样的一种阅读形式,并且在2016年改革之后的新SAT考试中CB官方依然

华威海外考试研究中心  徐露露
 
纵观北美常见的几类考试---“托福,GRE, GMAT, SSAT, ACT以及SAT”,唯有SAT考试的阅读部分设置了“对比阅读”这样的一种阅读形式,并且在2016年改革之后的新SAT考试中CB官方依然保留了这种阅读形式。由此可见“对比阅读”这种阅读形式在CB官方心中的分量,同时这种阅读形式也是很多考生心中永远的痛!那么,笔者今天就来简单谈一谈如何解决“对比阅读”中的三种题型。
 
首先,“对比阅读”是什么?和“单篇阅读”有什么区别?
<1>“对比阅读”的体裁都是议论文或夹叙夹议;而“单篇阅读的体裁可以是议论文、小说、说明文等各种体裁。
<2>“对比阅读”是同时出现两篇阅读,这两篇阅读是有关于同样的一个topic进行发表议论,并且各自观点大多数情况下都是相反的。
<3>“对比阅读”设置的题型种类既有传统的单篇阅读里出现的题型,又有属于对比阅读特有的题型----“求同题”&“求异题”&“互联题”。
 
解决“对比阅读”第一步----弄清两篇阅读关系
<1>“完全对立”关系:指两篇阅读的观点完全相矛盾,无半点重合。
<2>“部分对立”关系:指两篇阅读的观点部分矛盾,部分一致。
<3>“呼应”关系:指两篇阅读的观点大致相同,但两篇文章从不同的角度发表观点。
 
例1:“完全对立关系”(选自华威内部教材SAT习题集)
Passage 1:
People who work closely with animals readily acknowledge that they observe emotions in, or attribute emotions to, the animals they work with. Though this idea is derided by some in the scientific community, it is important to note that the most successful animal trainers are the ones who understand the “mood” of an animal---who are comfortable reading the emotional state of their charges. A horse trainer had better know whether a horse will take coaxing or commanding on a given day, and any trainer will tell you that different approached are effective with different individuals, even those from the same breed. These trainers attribute the difference to the animals’ emotional tendencies.
 
Passage 2:
The Oxford Companion to Animal Behavior advises animal behaviorists: “One is well advised to study the behavior of an animal, rather than attempting to get at any underlying emotion.”Whether or not animals experience emotions similar to those that humans do, the fact is that there is no scientific way to qualify and categorize them. If animals do experience emotion, it is certain that they do not express it in the same way we do. Accordingly, making any conclusions about emotions based on behavior amounts to nothing more than guesswork and wishful anthropomorphizing.
 
分析:
<1>P1的主题句为第一句----People who work closely with animals readily acknowledge that they observe emotions in, or attribute emotions to, the animals they work with. 作者认为对于同动物打交道的人来说了解动物的emotion非常重要。
<2>P2的主题句为第一句---The Oxford Companion to Animal Behavior advises animal behaviorists: “One is well advised to study the behavior of an animal, rather than attempting to get at any underlying emotion.” 作者认为按照牛津大学的专家的观点:“人们不应该试图去了解动物的emotion, 而是应该去研究动物的behavior”.
<3>因此,两篇文章的观点完全对立,那么文章关系为“完全对立关系”
 
例2:“部分对立关系”(选自2014年1月亚太考区SAT真题)
 
Passage 1:
The green consumer market is exciting, innovative, and filled with products consumers can feel good about purchasing. When paired with other eco-friendly behaviors such as curbing consumption, reusing products, and recycling everything possible, green consumerism --- the purchasing of products with the least harmful impact upon the environment --- has the potential to change what and how companies manufacture. Ultimately, demand for green products will drive down prices, lead to further innovations, and educate consumers on how their behavior impacts the earth.
 
Passage 2:
For all its well-meaning appearance, green consumerism is still consumerism. Green marketing tactics often do no more than fool us into thinking that we are doing something environmentally beneficial when actually we are merely responding to the latest gimmick to increase sales. Certainly, some new products are marginally better than previous ones, but few take the necessary creative leaps that encourage manufacturing that truly is in harmony with that ways of the earth. In many respects green consumerism marks a turning point, for it is bringing Earth consciousness into the limelight. But it is important to understand the difference between what is merely green hype and the true attempts at establishing a healthy and ecological marketplace.
 
分析:
<1>P1的主题句为第一句The green consumer market is exciting, innovative, and filled with products consumers can feel good about purchasing. 所以作者对于green consumer market是正态度。
<2>P2的主题句为最后两句In many respects marks a turning point, for it is bringing Earth consciousness into the limelight. But it is important to understand the difference between what is merely green hype and the true attempts at establishing a healthy and ecological marketplace. 可以看到这两句中的前一句在说green consumerism的优点,而后一句出现了转折,体现了作者的负面态度。
<3>所以两篇文章的关系应该为“部分对立关系”
 
例3:“呼应关系”(选自2014年5月亚太考区SAT真题)
Passage 1:
The mistake most actors make is that they think about the result instead of the objectives that lead to the result. Actors playing sorrowful scenes, for example, may churn themselves up into an emotional frenzy, thereby hoping to impress us. But, of course, the character’s objective is not “to impress the audience.”Instead, the character wants to accomplish something in the play----to seduce, to humiliate, to convince, to intimidate, to flee. By avoiding objectives and aiming straight at the result, you get a forced product that can lead to nothing but ham acting.
 
Passage 2:
If I was playing a tough guy, I was to remember that all tough guys walked tough, talked tough, breathed tough, smelled tough, spit tough. That forced me into caricatures you wouldn’t believe. To play a tough guy I would go around with my hands ready to strangle somebody, my mouth twisted; I would lower my voice and really be breathing fire, you know what I mean? Well, I looked ridiculous trying to play a tough guy. Not that I couldn’t play a tough guy----but I was under the impression that in order to be the tough guy, you had to create that tough guy out of external appearances.
 
分析:
<1>P1的主题句为最后一句---By avoiding objectives and aiming straight at the result, you get a forced product that can lead to nothing but ham acting. 作者认为如果演员表演时目的性太强,此时表演的作品就会是一种蹩脚作品,所以作者对于这样的表演方式不赞同。
<2>P2的主题句为最后一句----Not that I couldn’t play a tough guy----but I was under the impression that in order to be the tough guy, you had to create that tough guy out of external appearances. 作者认为如果想成功地表演出一个tough guy的形象,演员不应该仅仅只局限于外表,换言之应该做出走心的表演。
<3>所以两篇文章的观点类似都认为表演不能太局限于表面,目的性太强。两篇文章关系属于“呼应关系”
 
总结:
通过以上三组文章的例子,考生们可以得出以下经验:
1. 想要了解两篇文章的关系可以通过两篇文章的主题句。
2. 文章的主题句的位置一般有三种可能性:
<1>段首句:注意系表结构;含有情态动词(must, should)的句子;含有态度词汇的句子。
<2>段中句:注意转折句的情况(含有but, however等)
<3>段末句:注意表示下结论的句子,可以由两种方式体现----1). 由表“因果关系”的结果部分的句子,一般由therefore, thus等词引导;2).由in summary等短语来引导。
 
解决对比阅读第二步----掌握三种题型的解题技巧
1. 求同题
提问方式:
Both authors / passages agree that …
Which of the following is shared by both passages?
可以从提问方式中看出关键词both为求同题的标志。
 
解题技巧:
求同题可以被分为两类:
1). 主旨求同(考的比较多):题目问的是两篇文章在主旨方面的相似之处,那么,此时考生们就可以把第一步中分析出的两篇文章的关系派上用场了,因为只有“部分对立关系”和“呼应关系”才具有主旨相同的可能性。
2). 细节求同(考的比较少):题目问的是两篇文章在细节方面的相似之处,这种情况对于考生来说并无十分奏效的技巧去解决,因为文章中的细节信息太多了,不过好在这种情况考得不多。考生们唯一可以做的除了良好的对于文章细节信息的理解记忆能力以外可以再结合排除法---把某些选项中明显不符合文章的信息排除。
 
“主旨求同”之部分对立关系型:(选自SAT OG)
Passage 1:
The first three years of life appear to be a crucial starting point---a period particularly sensitive to the protective mechanisms of parental and family support. For millennia, parents have recognized the newborn’s basic need for safety, nourishment, warmth, and nurturing. Now science has added stunning revelations about human development from birth to age three, confirming that parents and other adult caregivers play a critical role in influencing a child’s development. No other period of human life is as suited to learning as are a child’s first three years. Babies raised by caring, attentive adults in safe, predictable environments are better learners than those raised with less attention in less secure settings.
 
Passage 2:
Much early childhood literature suggests that the first three years of life are the critical years for brain development. Yet new findings in neuroscience suggest that the brain retains its ability to reorganize itself in response to experience or injury throughout life: after the loss of sensory input from an amputated limb, for example, adults are able to learn new motor skills effectively. It may be useful to question the simplistic view that the brain becomes unbendable and increasingly difficult to modify beyond the first three years of life. If so, we should also be wary of claims that parents have only a single, biologically delimited, once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to help their children build better brains.
 
Both authors would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
A. The brain becomes increasingly inflexible as a person grows older.
B. Adults can bounce back from injuries as readily as children can.
C. Children raised by attentive parents are generally good learners.
D. It is widely acknowledged that the first three years are important to a child’s development.
E. Most scientists have recently changed their views about human development prior to age three.
 
分析:
<1>P1的主题句为第一句---The first three years of life appear to be a crucial starting point---a period particularly sensitive to the protective mechanisms of parental and family support. 作者认为人的一生中的头三年是关键的起始点,这个时期的人对于外界的保护机制非常敏感。
<2>P2的主题句为前两句---Much early childhood literature suggests that the first three years of life are the critical years for brain development. Yet new findings in neuroscience suggest that the brain retains its ability to reorganize itself… 作者认为虽然很多儿童文学作品表明人生中的头三年很重要,但是新的神经学领域的发现表明大脑在人整个一生中都具有自我重组的能力。。。
<3>P1认为头三年重要;P2认为一生都重要(包括了头三年)。因此两篇文章的关系为“部分对立”关系,重合的观点是双方都认为人的一生中头三年重要。所以以上的求同题应该选择D选项。
 
“主旨求同”之呼应关系型:(选自华威内部教材SAT习题集)
Passage 1:
The notion that cats are more intelligent than dogs originates in human presumption. From our observations of other humans, we infer that independence and reluctance to follow orders correlate with intelligence. So, when we see dogs slavishly obeying their owner’s commands, we leap to the conclusion that dogs must lack intelligence. By comparison, cats, with their Olympian detachment and cool disregard of their owner’s wishes, seem dignified, and therefore smart. Following this line of reasoning, we might be tempted to conclude that pigs are particularly dim-witted, since they spend most of their days wallowing in mud and filth.
 
Passage 2
Are cats more intelligent than dogs? The typical cat owner would probably answer with a resounding YES! Such people usually dismiss dogs as servile lackeys, while praising cats for their noble sense of self-determination. This thinking presupposes a complete understanding of the nature of animal intelligence and how it relates to human intelligence---a level of understanding that we have not yet acquired. Intelligence is often assumed to be associated with certain behavioral characteristics. Cat-lover’s theories about the braininess of their pets revolve around the belief that cats have too much self-respect to obey their owner’s whims. Dog, with their constant need to please their masters, are obviously less intelligent. Or are they?
 
The authors would most likely agree on which of the following points?
A. people are fascinated by the subject of animal intelligence
B. theories about cats have created false impressions in the minds of their owners
C. people view the topic of animal intelligence from an overly narrow perspective
D. cats are not the only animals that are highly intelligent
E. dogs are significantly more intelligent than cats
 
分析:
<1>P1的主题句为第一句---The notion that cats are more intelligent than originates in human presumption. 有一个观点认为猫要比狗聪明,作者认为这个观点是来自于人类的推测。
<2>P2的主题句为最后一句---Dog, with their constant need to please their masters, are obviously less intelligent. Or are they? 作者认为狗因为一直要取悦自己的主人所以就没有那么聪明,事实是这样吗?
<3>两篇文章的作者都认为猫比狗聪明的说法不准确,因此文章关系为“呼应关系”。因此以上求同题应该选择C选项。
 
“细节求同题”
Passage 1:
The TajMahal, located in Agra, India, is one of the most magnificent examples of Islamic architecture. Shah Jahan, a Muslim ruler, built it in the seventeenth century as a tribute to his late wife. The style of the building seems to reflect that it was built for a beloved woman. Delicate white marble walls, accented by lofty arches and lacy scrollwork, support a series of domes. Four slender towers stand guard near the corners of the building. Overall, the style of the structure gives a striking impression of lightness, despite the heavy stone material. All of these characteristics lead to an almost otherworldly beauty.
 
Passage 2:
Although the TajMahal has long been recognized for its architectural beauty, it is often overlooked that Shah Jahan commissioned the building in 1632 as a tomb for his most beloved wife. The tomb is flanked on the west by a mosque, a Muslim place of worship. Arabic script is inlaid along the walls of the TajMahal, and it is rumored that the entire Muslim holy book, the Koran, is written along the structure’s walls and supports. The architectural wonder of the TajMahal cannot be denied; however, it is vital to recognize the spiritual aspects that pervade one of the world’s most recognizable buildings.
 
The authors of both passages would most likely agree that the TajMahal
A. is the most famous example of Islamic architecture
B. was primarily designed to be a place of worship
C. was originally intended as a memorial
D. is not typical of building in India
E. is both graceful and solidly constructed
 
分析:
<1>P1的主题句为第一句---The TajMahal, located in Agra, India, is one of the most magnificent examples of Islamic architecture. 认为泰姬陵在建筑风格上非常宏伟。
<2>P2的主题句为最后一句---The architectural wonder of the TajMahal cannot be denied; however, it is vital to recognize the spiritual aspects that pervade one of the world’s most recognizable buildings. 认为泰姬陵在建筑上的奇迹不可否认,但是泰姬陵在精神方面的价值也不可忽略。
<3>所以两篇文章关系为“部分对立”,我们很期待上面的求同题的选项为两篇文章主旨方面重合的内容,但是上面却是一道细节求同题,答案选择C(泰姬陵是一个纪念的地方)。P1里面有细节信息---Shah Jahan, a Muslim ruler, built it in the seventeenth century as a tribute to his late wife. P2中也有类似的细节信息---Shah Jahan commissioned the building in 1632 as a tomb for his most beloved wife. 所以这两处细节为文章相同的地方。
 
2. 求异题
提问方式:
The contrast/difference between P1 & P2 is that _____
P1 differs from P2 in that ________________
Compared to P1, P2 ____________________
由以上提问方式可以看出求异题的题干关键词为difference和contrast
 
解题技巧:
求异题可以被分为两类:
1). 主旨求异(考的比较多):题目问的是两篇文章在主旨方面的不同之处,那么,此时考生们就可以把第一步中分析出的两篇文章关系派上用场了,因为只有“部分对立关系”和“完全对立关系”才具有主旨不同的可能性。
2). 细节求异(考的非常少):题目问的是两篇文章在细节方面的差异,针对细节信息的考察无论是求同题还是求异题对于考生来说都是一件比较麻烦的事情,因为尤其是长对比阅读的细节信息非常多,此时考生们只能根据自己对于细节信息的记忆来去解题了。
 
“主旨求异”之完全对立型文章:
例题:(选自华威内部教材SAT习题集)
Passage 1:
People who work closely with animals readily acknowledge that they observe emotions in, or attribute emotions to, the animals they work with. Though this idea is derided by some in the scientific community, it is important to note that the most successful animal trainers are the ones who understand the “mood” of an animal---who are comfortable reading the emotional state of their charges. A horse trainer had better know whether a horse will take coaxing or commanding on a given day, and any trainer will tell you that different approached are effective with different individuals, even those from the same breed. These trainers attribute the difference to the animals’ emotional tendencies.
 
Passage 2:
The Oxford Companion to Animal Behavior advises animal behaviorists: “One is well advised to study the behavior of an animal, rather than attempting to get at any underlying emotion.”Whether or not animals experience emotions similar to those that humans do, the fact is that there is no scientific way to qualify and categorize them. If animals do experience emotion, it is certain that they do not express it in the same way we do. Accordingly, making any conclusions about emotions based on behavior amounts to nothing more than guesswork and wishful anthropomorphizing.
 
The two passages differ in their views of animal emotion in that Passage 1 states that animals
A. show love for their trainers, while Passage 2 contends that animals can only love their own kind.
B. have emotions that are identical to those of humans, while Passage 2 notes that horses have stronger emotions than other animals.
C. have strong emotions, while Passage 2 points out that they have no emotions at all.
D. have identifiable emotions, while Passage 2 suggests that there is not enough scientific data to understand animal emotions fully.
E. anthropomorphize, while Passage 2 argues that it is humans who do that.
 
分析:
<1>P1的主题句为第一句---People who work closely with animals readily acknowledge that they observe emotions in, or attribute emotions to, the animals they work with. 作者认为对于同动物打交道的人来说了解动物的emotion非常重要。
<2>P2的主题句为第一句---The Oxford Companion to Animal Behavior advises animal behaviorists: “One is well advised to study the behavior of an animal, rather than attempting to get at any underlying emotion.” 作者认为按照牛津大学的专家的观点:“人们不应该试图去了解动物的emotion, 而是应该去研究动物的behavior”.
<3>因此,两篇文章的观点完全对立,那么文章关系为“完全对立关系”,因此上面的求异题即体现的是两篇文章在主旨方面的差异,所以应该选择D。
 
“主旨求异”之部分对立型文章:
Passage 1:
The first Industrial Revolution, which occurred in Great Britain in the latter half of the 18th century, represented a sudden acceleration of technological and economic development that would permeate all levels of Britain society. Specially, the traditional agrarian economy was supplanted by one based on manufacturing and machinery. Very much an urban movement, the revolution gave rise to a new system of social class, based primarily upon the relationship of the industrial capitalist to the factory worker. These changes can be attributed to a number of favorable social circumstances----including an increasing population, which would provide both a larger work force and expanding markets, a strong middle class, and stability in both the political environment and the monetary system.
 
Passage 2:
Though the Industrial Revolution certainly saw the transformation of many different aspects of British social and economic life, these changes were primarily effects, not to be mistaken for causes. Undoubtedly, the burgeoning population and established political system provided apt environment for revolution. Yet the chief factors were rooted not in broad changes in society, but rather in extraordinary technological innovations within a few industries. Within the smelting industry, for example, the production of new materials, namely iron and steel, would allow for stronger, more complex machinery. Coupled with the invention of James Watt’s steam engine in the 1780s, these innovations laid the groundwork for massive technological progress that would in turn pave the way for those significant social and economic changes.
 
Which statement best describes a significant difference between the author’s interpretations of population increase and its relationship to the Industrial Revolution?
A. Author 1 maintains that a growing population was not a major factor in the revolution; Author 2 maintains that it was a prerequisite.
B. Author 1 emphasizes that it was a main cause; Author 2 claims that it had no effect on the revolution.
C. Author 1 states that it was one of the major factors; Author 2 claims that it was important for setting the stage, but was not the main catalyst.
D. Author 1 contends that population growth was greatest in the more industrialized regions; author 2 maintains that population growth was suppressed in those areas.
E. Author 1 believes the relationship has been distorted; Author 2 believes it has been overemphasized.
 
分析:
<1>P1的主题句为最后一句---These changes can be attributed to a number of favorable social circumstances----including an increasing population… 作者认为工业革命所带来的变化主要是由于很多有利的社会环境因素包括增加的人口。
<2>P2的主题句为第二句和第三句---Undoubtedly, the burgeoning population and established political system provided apt environment for revolution. Yet the chief factors were rooted not in broad changes in society, but rather in extraordinary technological innovations within a few industries. 作者认为不断增加的人口的确给工业革命提供了合适的环境,但是主要因素应该是由于技术上的革命。
<3>因此两篇文章关系为“部分对立关系”,而以上的求异题体现的就是两篇文章部分对立的地方,即P1认为population为主要因素,而P2认为population有贡献但是不是主要贡献,所以答案应该选择C选项。
 
3. 互联题
提问方式:
Which best describes the relationship between the two passages?
____ in one passage would most likely + VERB + ___ in another passage?
 
解题技巧:
互联题的提问方式有两种,那么有何区别?
<1>提问方式1主要想考察的是两篇文章的关系,可能会出现这样的一个选项:P2 offers a personal anecdote that cast doubt upon the beliefs espoused in P1. 通过这样的一个选项考生们可以看出两篇文章关系为对立关系,因为出现了cast doubt on。
<2>提问方式2主要想考察一篇文章作者对另外一篇文章里的细节信息如何看待?选项经常会出现一些表示态度的词汇:critical, endorsement等等。那么要想知道是什么态度还是得根据两篇文章的关系:完全对立?部分对立?呼应关系?
 
例题:(选自SAT OG Practice Test 10)
Passage 1:
The first three years of life appear to be a crucial starting point---a period particularly sensitive to the protective mechanisms of parental and family support. For millennia, parents have recognized the newborn’s basic need for safety, nourishment, warmth, and nurturing. Now science has added stunning revelations about human development from birth to age three, confirming that parents and other adult caregivers play a critical role in influencing a child’s development. No other period of human life is as suited to learning as are a child’s first three years. Babies raised by caring, attentive adults in safe, predictable environments are better learners than those raised with less attention in less secure settings.
 
Passage 2:
Much early childhood literature suggests that the first three years of life are the critical years for brain development. Yet new findings in neuroscience suggest that the brain retains its ability to reorganize itself in response to experience or injury throughout life: after the loss of sensory input from an amputated limb, for example, adults are able to learn new motor skills effectively. It may be useful to question the simplistic view that the brain becomes unbendable and increasingly difficult to modify beyond the first three years of life. If so, we should also be wary of claims that parents have only a single, biologically delimited, once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to help their children build better brains.
 
Q1. Which best expresses the relationship between P1 and P2?
A. P2 urges particular changes as a result of the findings described in P1.
B. P2 mocks those who support the argument presented in P1.
C. P2 offers a personal anecdote that casts doubt upon the beliefs espoused in P1.
D. P2 questions an assumption underlying the ideas expressed in P1.
E. P2 provides a scientific explanation for the examples cited in P1.
 
Q2. P2 as a whole suggests that its author would most react to the sentence “No other…years” with
A. indignation
B. skepticism
C. humor
D. ambivalence
E. approval
 
题目1的分析:
<1>P1的主题句为第一句---The first three years of life appear to be a crucial starting point---a period particularly sensitive to the protective mechanisms of parental and family support. 作者认为人的一生中的头三年是关键的起始点,这个时期的人对于外界的保护机制非常敏感。
<2>P2的主题句为前两句----Much early childhood literature suggests that the first three years of life are the critical years for brain development. Yet new findings in neuroscience suggest that the brain retains its ability to reorganize itself… 作者认为虽然很多儿童文学作品表明人生中的头三年很重要,但是新的神经学领域的发现表明大脑在人整个一生中都具有自我重组的能力。。。
<3>P1认为头三年重要;P2认为一生都重要。因此两篇文章的关系为“部分对立”关系,那么此时第一题答案只能在B和D当中选,B选项用了mock一词,态度过负,因为该词是“嘲笑”的意思。而D选项用了question(质疑)一词体现对立关系非常合适。
 
题目2的分析:
题干问我们P2会对P1里的这句话---No other period of human life is as suited to learning as are a child’s first three years有什么样的看法。这句话认为人的一生中没有哪个时间段能够像头三年那么重要。很明显P2的作者肯定不会赞同,因为P2的观点认为人的一生都重要。所以答案应该选择B。
 
总结:
在整理完对比阅读的三种题型---“求同题;求异题;互联题”的解题技巧之后,考生们会发现几乎每种题型的解题思路都是从双篇文章的关系入手----“完全对立;部分对立;呼应关系”。把握对比阅读的关键就是摸清两篇文章各自的观点,从文章整体出发,切忌只盯着文章的细节!
 

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