托福阅读事实信息题题型解析

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  • 2017-04-14 23:18
  • 编辑:halongre

华威海外考试研究中心孙亚楠 一、题型概述 事实信息题或者称为细节题,是托福阅读考题的基本题型,考查的是提取关键词和在文章中定位解题信息的能力,主要检验考生对文章中某一具体内

华威海外考试研究中心 孙亚楠
 
一、题型概述
事实信息题或者称为细节题,是托福阅读考题的基本题型,考查的是提取关键词和在文章中定位解题信息的能力,主要检验考生对文章中某一具体内容和细节的把握。事实信息题的问题一般就是纯粹的事实层面上的问题,主要问作者说了什么,哪些信息是真的。此类题考查文章中某一部分的细节信息,不会涉及文章主旨,答案大多能在文章中直接找到,但个别答案则需要一些分析,考生应当能够将题干表述的信息定位到文章中相应句子之上以寻求答案。
 
1. 提问方式
事实信息题通常都是以特殊疑问词开头的特殊疑问句,例如:
According to the paragraph, which of the following statements is true about X?
According to the paragraph, what/where/how…..?
According to the paragraph, what does the author say about X?
综上提问方式,我们有看到一个非常明显的标示性表述,according to the paragraph,此表述表明我们所选的正确答案在原文中作者是明确描述出来的(explicitly stated), 这可以跟推断题区分开来。
 
2. 题目数量
3-6题/篇,出题频率高,数量大,所以考生必须把此种题型作为一个重点。
 
二、解题步骤详解
1. 阅读题干,寻找定位词 (key words)
哪些词可以充当定位词以让我们快速的去原文中来定位?我们会首选一些形式上比较特殊的词,如专有名词(人名/地名/特殊历史时期名),时间/数字,长难单词。如果题干中并未出现此类形式特殊的词,则我们会选择题干中的具体名词来定位,因为相对来讲,名词被同义替换的概率相对小一些,但是如果选择的这个名词在原段落中出现多次则要学会使用非名词来定位。
 
下面具体说一下名词定位和非名词定位的优缺点:
名词定位有个最大的好处是“词形不变”,但坏处是“它会在文章中多次出现”,与之相反,非名词定位最大的坏处是“词形会改变”,但好处是“一般只在文中出现一次”。可见,这两种定位方式是相辅相成的,所以要将二者结合在一起进行定位。
定位词在原文中呈现的方式会有两种,首先原词重现,其次同义替换,因此要求考生在备考前期要将词汇基础打牢,高频词及相应的同义词/近义词,甚至是反义词都要有所涉及,这样才能在考试时迅速识别同义替换进行精确定位。
 
例题1:
Paragraph 6: All this applies, of course, only to an adult leatherback. Hatchlings are simply too small to conserve body heat, even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems. We do not know how old, or how large, a leatherback has to be before it can switch from a cold-blooded to a warm-blooded mode of life. Leatherbacks reach their immense size in a much shorter time than it takes other sea turtles to grow. Perhaps their rush to adulthood is driven by a simple need to keep warm. (TPO 15 –Passage 1)
11. According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is most accurate about young leatherback turtles?
○ They lack the countercurrent exchange systems that develop in adulthood.
○ Their rate of growth is slower than that of other sea turtles.
○ They lose heat easily even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems.
○ They switch between cold-blooded and warm-blooded modes throughout their hatchling stage.
解析:此题可选定位词为young leatherback turtles, 回段落中定位发现第二句话写到hatchlings, 意为孵化出的幼体,则定位句非常肯定则为第二句话。不过此题如果真的不认识hatchling, 考生还可以根据上下文大致推测,第一句讲到“这只适用于成年海龟”,然后提到“hatchlings太小而不能….”,所以可以看出前后两句有对比关系,推断出hatchling即为幼小的海龟,则定位到此句。当然最好的状态还是要积累足够的词汇以更加快速准确地定位。
 
注意:无定位词的题目。
所谓无定位词的题目,即为题干中出现的信息即为整个段落所描述的信息或是定位词即为段落主题。对于这种题目,无法精确定位到原文中的某一处具体信息,因此需要考生具备很强的信息筛选能力。在考试过程时间紧张的情况下,我们建议采取的策略是用选项来定位以迅速确定每个选项的正确性。
 
例题2:
Paragraph 6: Groundwater is stored in the pore spaces and jointsof rocks and unconsolidated (unsolidified) sediments or in the openings widened through fractures and weathering. The water-saturated rock or sediment is known as an "aquifer". Because they are porous, sedimentary rocks, such as sandstones and conglomerates, are important potential sources of groundwater. Large quantities of water may also be stored in limestones when joints and cracks have been enlarged to form cavities. Most limestone and sandstone aquifers are deep and extensive but may contain groundwaters that are not being recharged. Most shallow aquifers in sand and gravel deposits produce lower yields, but they can be rapidly recharged. Some deep aquifers are known as fossil waters. The term "fossil" describes water that has been present for several thousand years. These aquifers became saturated more than 10,000 years ago and are no longer being recharged. (TPO 12 – Passage 3)
8. According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements about aquifers in deserts is true?
○ Water from limestone and sandstone aquifers is generally better to drink than water from sand and gravel aquifers
○ Sand and gravel aquifers tend to contain less groundwater than limestone or sandstone aquifers
○ Groundwater in deep aquifers is more likely to be recharged than groundwater in shallow aquifers
○ Sedimentary rocks, because they are porous, are not capable of storing large amounts of groundwater
解析:阅读题干定位词则为aquifers in deserts, 但是浏览段落发现本段从第二句开始就一直在介绍aquifer, 如果选择直接定位的话,则需要阅读的篇幅较长,并且读完段落再去看选项很容易遗忘信息导致浪费时间,因此我们选择从选项入手,利用选项中的信息定位到原文从而判断每个选项的真伪。
 
2. 带着定位词在文章中定位相关信息,并精读定位句。
3. 阅读选项,找到和定位句对应的同义改写,确定答案。
正确选项是正确定位句的同义改写,必须在意思上符合定位句所表达的信息。
 
例题3:
Paragraph 7: The probability that actual remains of soft tissue will be preserved is improved if the organism dies in an environment of rapid deposition and oxygen deprivation. Under such conditions, the destructive effects of bacteria are diminished. The Middle Eocene Messel Shale (from about 48 million years ago) of Germany accumulated in such an environment. The shale was deposited in an oxygen-deficient lake where lethal gases sometimes bubbled up and killed animals. Their remains accumulated on the floor of the lake and were then covered by clay and silt. Among the superbly preserved Messel fossils are insects with iridescent exoskeletons (hard outer coverings), frogs with skin and blood vessels intact, and even entire small mammals with preserved fur and soft tissue. (TPO20- Passage3)
11. According to paragraph 7, how do environments containing oxygen affect fossil preservation?
○ They increase the probability that soft-tissue organisms will become fossils.
○ They lead to more bacteria production.
○ They slow the rate at which clay and silt are deposited.
○ They reduce the chance that animal remains will be preserved.
解析:本篇文章的标题即为fossil preservation, 所以在选择定位词时我们会舍弃文章主题类的词作为定位词,则我们应当选择environments containing oxygen为定位词,其中oxygen作为化学类的专业术语在原文中必定原词重现,所以很容易观察到段落中第一句话就涉及到environment和oxygen。精读第一句话,大意为“当生物体死在一个快速沉积和缺氧的环境下,软组织残骸被保存下来的可能性会增加。”原文中讲到的是缺氧的环境下,而题干中则是有氧的环境下,因此应当对原文中的信息取反,则为“在有氧环境下,生物体残骸被保存下来的可能性降低”,所以答案选D项。D项中chance与原文中的probability又是一组很简单的同义替换。对于本题很多同学做错的原因在于不认识“deprivation”一词,因此很难判断原文中描述的是“有氧环境”还是“缺氧环境”以至于答案选错。所以,要做对事实信息题,最关键的就是看懂原文,而看懂原文最重要的元素就是考生是否积累了足够的词汇量,是否认识丰富的短语和固定搭配,是否能正确分析句子结构,而这些都需要考生在考前长期积累,只有达到这种积累量才能保证做题的正确率,也才能从根本上切实提高自身的英语水平。
 
三、事实信息题错误选项的特征
1. 选项中出现了原文中未提及的信息
例题4:
Paragraph 2: The Biological Approach. Numerous biological structures and chemicals appear to be involved in aggression. One is the hypothalamus, a region of the brain. In response to certain stimuli, many animals show instinctive aggressive reactions. The hypothalamus appears to be involved in this inborn reaction pattern: electrical stimulation of part of the hypothalamus triggers stereotypical aggressive behaviors in many animals. In people, however, whose brains are more complex, other brain structures apparently moderate possible instincts.(OG)
1. According to paragraph 2, what evidence indicates that aggression in animals is related to the hypothalamus?
○ Some aggressive animal species have a highly developed hypothalamus.
○ Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus delays animals’ inborn reaction patterns.
○ Animals behaving aggressively show increased activity in the hypothalamus.
○ Animals who lack a hypothalamus display few aggressive tendencies.
解析:阅读题干发现一个长难单词hypothalamus, 则用其去原文中定位,发现第二句话和第四句话都有涉及hypothalamus, 但是第二句话仅仅是一个大概的介绍,说它是大脑的一个区域。仔细阅读第四句话,意为“下丘脑(hypothalamus)似乎与动物的这种本能反应有关:对许多动物的下丘脑中部分区域进行电激,会引发一些它们的常见侵略性行为”。 阅读选项,发现C选项跟原文表述相一致,其中涉及一定程度的同义改写,其中“show increased activity”对应原文中的“electrical stimulation”。对于本题有一些同学会误选为B选项,是因为被一些与原文中一模一样的词所干扰,如“Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus”, “inborn reaction patterns”, 但是忽略了delay这一信息点在原文中并未出现,因此B项为错误选项。
 
2. 虚假比较。原文定位句中没有出现比较级,最高级一类的语言现象,但是选项中出现了这种比较。
例题5:
Paragraph 4: Though it may be difficult to imagine from a later perspective, a strain of critical opinion in the 1920s predicted that sound film would be a technical novelty that would soon fade from sight, just as had many previous attempts, dating well back before the First World War, to link images with recorded sound. These critics were making a common assumption - that the technological inadequacies of earlier efforts (poor synchronization, weak sound amplification, fragile sound recordings) would invariably occur again. To be sure, their evaluation of the technical flaws in 1920s sound experiments was not so far off the mark, yet they neglected to take into account important new forces in the motion picture field that, in a sense, would not take no for an answer. (TPO12 - Passage2)
10. According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true about the technical problems of early sound films?
○ Linking images with recorded sound was a larger obstacle than weak sound amplification or fragile sound recordings.
○ Sound films in the 1920s were unable to solve the technical flaws found in sound films before the First World War.
○ Technical inadequacies occurred less frequently in early sound films than critics suggested.
○ Critics assumed that it would be impossible to overcome the technical difficulties experienced with earlier sound films.
解析:本题定位词为technical problems, 去原文中寻找发现原文中第二句出现technological inadequacies, 第三句话中出现technical flaws, 都是定位词的同义替换,则定位到第二三两句话中,选项根据其中任何一句话来设置都是正确的。精读完定位句之后,发现D选项与原文第二句话(意为:早期努力的技术上的不足将会再次发生)意思相一致,则选D项。对于A选项而言,原文第二句括号中的信息确实提及了一些具体的技术问题(poor synchronization, weak sound amplification, fragile sound recordings),但原文并未进行比较,因此A选项中(… a larger obstacle than …)出现了虚假比较,则为错误选项。
 
以上就是对托福阅读中的事实信息题的详细讲解,可以看出这种重点题型对考生的定位能力和理解能力要求非常高,因此考生要在平时的练习中多积累高频词以及其同义替换,提高分析句子的能力,这样才能确保事实信息题的正确率。

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