4月8日雅思考试阅读回顾

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  • 2017-04-10 15:24
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2017 年4月8日雅思考试阅读回顾 P1 儿童的媒体素养 Media Literacy of Children P2 减肥的神秘方法 Stealth Forces in Weight Loss P3 历史记录 Recording History 华威名师吴凡点评 1. 本次考试难度中等 。 2. 整体分析

2017年4月8日雅思考试阅读回顾

P1 儿童的媒体素养Media Literacy of Children

P2 减肥的神秘方法Stealth Forces in Weight Loss

P3 历史记录Recording History

华威名师吴凡点评

1. 本次考试难度中等

2. 整体分析涉及社会科学类(P1)、生物类(P2)、历史类(P3).

3. 主要题型填空题、判断题和配对题作为主要题型出现,本次考试中填空题以2类题型出现(完成句子、summary填空);判断题出现在第一篇文章;配对考了2篇,并且第三篇配对题和单选题搭配出题,可能比较耗费做题时间

4. P1参考文章

Media Literacy of Children

Access has two dimensions. It is, firstly, about physical access to equipment, in a setting where it is possible to use it in an unrestricted way. However, it is also a matter of the ability to manipulate technology (and related software t-ools) in order to locate the content or information that one requires. With older media, physical access is rarely co-nsidered to be a significant issue: terrestrial television and analogue radio are now more or less universally available, and the majority of children now have access to both in the private space of their own bedrooms. However, with new media, there are still significant inequalities in levels of access between different social class groups.

 

However, such claims have yet to be sustained by any empirical research; and, as with research on internet risk, weneed to find out how these risks are understood and experienced by children, and how they learn to deal with them.

 

Access and exposure to online pornography is another public concern. Statistics are available to indicate frequencyof exposure to online pornography (Carr, 2004; Livingstone and Bober, 2004a), and one might argue that media literacy skills are crucial for children to be able to cope with such encounters. The UKCGO survey indicates that children and young people, when encountering online pornography, will leave a site, delete an e-mail or pursue the image (look at it, share with a friend, go back to it).  

 

Although this survey gives us a rough indication of children’s responses to such material (e.g. 54% of weekly users ‘say they didn’t think too much about it’), there has been little qualitative research to examine how such material is experienced or even understood (Sutter, 2000 in Livingstone 2003). A small scale study by Burn and Willett (in press) indicates that children share stories about pornography and paedophilia that are often based on half-truths, especially when such topics are considered taboo; while Bevort and Breda (2001) found that French children were more concerned about ‘race hate’ sites than about pornography or paedophiles, and that the more they used the internet, the more confident they became of their ability to cope with such material. Both studies suggest that the way forward for media literacy is through open discussion and engagement with risks, rather than censorship.  

 

Messaris (1986) found that parents (or at least mothers) played an important positive role in young children’s learning from television, in three main respects. Firstly, at a very young age, they helped children to make distinctions between different types of programmes, and between television and reality. Secondly, they helped children to evaluate the accuracy of television representations, and hence to adjust unrealistic expectations about the real world that might have arisen from television viewing.  

 

Thirdly, parents could provide ‘background’ information when children were confronted with unfamiliar material, particularly relating to aspects of adult life that children could not have experienced themselves.

完成句子填空判断题  

 

5. P2  参考文章

Stealth Forces in Weight Loss

The  field of weight loss is like the ancient fable about the blind men and  elephant. Each man investigates a different part of the animal and reports  back, only to discover their findings are bafflingly incompatible.

A

The  various findings by public-health experts, physicians, psychologists,  geneticists, molecular biologists, and nutritionists are about to as similar  as an elephant’s tusk is to its tail. Some say obesity is largely  predetermined by our genes and biology; others attribute it to an  overabundance of fries, soda, and screen-sucking; still others think we’re  fat because of viral infection, insulin, or the metabolic conditions we  encountered in the womb. “Everyone subscribes to their own little theory,”  says Robert Berkowitz, medical director of the Center for Weight and Eating  Disorder at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. We’re  programmed to hang onto the fat we have, and some people are predisposed to  create and carry more fat than others. Diet and exercise help, but in the end  the solution will inevitably be more complicated than pushing away the plat  and going for a walk.” It’s not as simple as ‘You’re fat because you’re lazy.’”  Says Nikhi Dhurandhar, an associate professor at Pennington Biomedical  Research Center in Baton Rouge. “Willpower is not a prerogative of thin  people. It’s distributed equally.”

B

Science  may still be years away from giving us a miracle formula for fat-loss.  Hormone leptin is a crucial player in the brain’s weight-management  circuitry. Some people produce too little leptin; others become desensitized  to it. And when obese people lose weight, their leptin levels plummet along  with their metabolism. The body becomes more efficient at using fuel and  conserving fat, which makes it tough to keep the weight off. Obese dieters’  bodies go into a state of chronic hunger, a feeling Rudolph Leibel, an  obesity researcher at Columbia University, compares to thirst. “Some people  might be able to tolerate chronic thirst, but the majority couldn’t stand it,”  says Leibel. “Is the behavioral problem – a lack of willpower? I don’t think  so.”

C

The  government has long espoused moderate daily exercise – of evening-walk or  take-the-stairs variety – but that may not do much to budge the needle on the  scale. A 150-pound person burns only 150 calories on a half-hour walk, the  equivalent of two apples. It’s good for the heart, less so for the gut. “Radical  changes are necessary,” says Deirdre Barret, a psychologist at Harvard Medical  School and author of Waistland. “People don’t lose weight by choosing the  small fries or taking a little walk every other day.” Barret suggests taking  a cue from the members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), a  self-selected group of more than 5,000 successful weight-losers who have shed  an average of 66 pounds and kept it off 5.5 years. Some registry members lost  weight using low-carb diets; some went low-fat; others eliminated refined  foods. Some did it one their own; others relied on counseling. That said, not  everyone can lose 66 pounds and not everyone whittle your weight down to the  low end your set range, says Jeffery Friedman, a geneticist at Rockefeller  University. Losing even 10 pounds vastly decrease your risk of diabetes,  heart disease, and high blood pressure. The point is to not give up just  because you don’t look like a swimsuit model.

D

The negotiation  between your genes and the environment begins on the day one. Your optimal  weight, writ by genes, appears to get edited early on by conditions even  before birth, inside the womb. If a woman has high blood-sugar levels while  she’s pregnant, her children are more likely to be overweight or obese,  according to a study of almost 10,000 mother-child pairs. Maternal diabetes  may influence a child’s obesity risk through a process called metabolic  imprinting, says Teresa Hiller, an endocrinologist with Kaiser Permanente’s  Center for Health Research and the study’s lead author. The implication is  clear: Weight may be established very early on, and obesity largely passed  from mother to child. Numerous studies in both animals and humans have shown  that a mother’s obesity directly increases her child’s risk for weight gain. The  best advice for moms-to-be: Get fit before you get pregnant. You’ll reduce  your risk of complications during pregnancy and increase your chances of  having a normal-weight child.

E

It’s  the $64,000 question: Which diets work? It got people wondering: Isn’t there  a better way to diet? A study seemed to offer an answer. The paper compared  two groups of adults: those who, after eating, secreted high levels of  insulin, a hormone that sweeps blood sugar out of the bloodstream and  promotes its storage as fast, and those who secreted less. Within each group,  half were put on a low-fat diet and half on a low-glycemic-load diet. On  average, the low-insulin-secreting group fared the same on both diets, losing  nearly 10 pounds in the first six months – but they gained about half of it  back by the end of the 18-month study. The high-insulin group didn’t do as  well on the low-fat plan, losing about 4.5 pounds, and gaining back more than  half by the end. But the most successful were the high-insulin-secretors on  the low-glycemic-load diet. They lost nearly 13 pounds and kept it off.

F

What  if your fat is caused not by diet or genes, but by germs – say, a virus? It  sounds like a sci-fi horror movie, but research suggests some dimension of  the obesity epidemic may be attributable to infection by common viruses says  Dhurandhar. The idea of “infectobesity” came t him 20 years ago when he was a  young doctor treating obesity in Bombay. He discovered that a local avian  virus, SMAM-1, caused chickens to die, sickened with organ damage but also,  strangely, with lots of andoninal fat. In experiments, Dhurandhar found that  SMAM-1-infected chickens became obese on the same diet as uninfected ones,  which stayed svelte.

G

He  later moved to the US and onto a bona fide human vires, adenovirus 36  (AD-36). In the lab, every species of animal Dhurandhar infected with the  virus became obese – chickens got fat, mice got fat, even rhesus monkey at  the zoo that picked up the virus from the environment suddenly gained 15  percent of their body weight upon exposure itself, seems to turn off the virus’s  fattening power. Some cells extracted from fat cells and then exposed to an  AD-36 virus with the key gene necessary and sufficient to trigger  AD-36-related obesity, and the goal is to use the research to create a sort  of obesity vaccine.

段落信息配对 + 人名观点配对 + summary填空

答案仅供参考:

14 B

15 D

16 C

17 B

18 G

19 F

20 F

21 E

22 D

23 A

24 chicken

25 AD-36adenovirus

26 gene

27 vaccine

 

6. P3 Recording History

段落信息配对 + 单选 + summary填空

考试预测

1.   判断题、填空题和段落细节信息配对题依然是练习的重点。标题配对题型也不能忽视,目前看来该类题型一般是保持每月一次的出题频率,因此准备4月考试的同学请不要放松练习。本次考试还出现了summary填空题,考生平时练习需要熟悉summary填空和有选择两类题型的做题方法。

2.   下场考试的话题可能有关科技类科普文、社科类。

3.   重点浏览14、15年机经。


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新雅思、托福、SAT备考资料。

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