变化万千是语言 ——托福写作句式多样技能达成

  • 点击:
  • 2016-09-28 16:33
  • 编辑:halongre

华威海外考试研究中心李怡静 在托福写作的评分标准中,有一条标准非常明确地表示对于写作中语言的要求:Displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word cho

华威海外考试研究中心  李怡静
 
在托福写作的评分标准中,有一条标准非常明确地表示对于写作中语言的要求:Displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors. 将这项标准解释一下,就是要求语言连贯、句式多样、用词恰当、遵循表达习惯,可以有个别小错误。然而很多中国考生,对于“句式多样性”非常恐惧和拒绝,因为有些考生可能连基本的表达清楚自己的观点都很难,更别提句式变换了。
 
究其原因,是中国考生对于语法的掌握度太低。这里所说的掌握度,并不是说语法点定义和结构正确,或者是会汉译英、会造句,而是能够形成自己的一套语法敏感体系——对于什么时候该用什么语法、长句还是短句、可不可以换词或换句型这样的情况了如指掌。针对提高学生语法的掌握度,具体分为两个步骤。
 
一、架构横向语法体系
在基础语法的课堂上,很多老师倾向于纵向为学员讲解语法(即将句子按照简单句、并列句、复杂句分类,再将复杂句按照名词性从句、定语从句、状语从句等讲解),学员看似理解各种语法,但实际上在真正写作的时候,再提到句式变换,对学生来说又是一个新的知识。其实基础语法课的重点在于让学生会语法,而不是让学生会用语法。
 
在这种情况下,为了提升学生写作语言,横向的对比和转换应用语法更为重要。比如,对于学生来说,定语是一个很抽象的概念。其实不妨将能做定语的内容总结起来形成一个完整的体系,让学生有一个整体的把握和横向的对比转换:能做定语的有形容词、介词短语、非谓语动词和定语从句,那么也就是说,在一定的情况下,这四种定语都可以互换,从而实现整个句式的变化。同样地,对于状语部分,也可以帮助学生架构体系:能做状语的有副词、形容词、介词短语、非谓语动词和状语从句。结合具体的例子和句意,以下华威专家来解读一下每种定语和状语的应用。
 
²定语类:
1.The problem triggered severe panic in the city.(形容词做前置定语)
2.The woman present in the meeting is my mother.(形容词做后置定语)
3.A young man in his 20s should exceed the boundaries and embrace challenges instead of remaining in familiar parameters.(介词短语做定语)
4.Children kept under their parents’ wings are vulnerable to adversity.(非谓语动词done做定语,表示被动)
5.Employees getting involved in the decision-making process are more willing to make contributions to their company.(非谓语动词doing做定语,表示伴随)
6.I have something to discuss with you.(非谓语动词to do做定语,表示目的)
7.Children, who are in the formative years, can be easily swayed by wrong ideas.(定语从句)
 
²状语类:
1.In this case, love will gradually become a kind of pain.(副词作状语)
2.Thirsty and hungry, the man walked on the road.(形容词作状语)
3.This is harmful in most occasions.(介词短语作状语)
4.Having finished his homework, the boy went out to play.(非谓语动词doing作状语)
5.Dressed as ghosts, the children went to the party.(非谓语动词done作状语)
6.He was sent there to accomplish the task.(非谓语动词to do作状语)
7.While this protective instinct is understandable, I do not think it is a smart move to make decision for kids.(让步状语从句)
 
²主语类:
1.She finds playing computer games boring.(代词做主语)
2.The government’s inability to control the air pollution forces many people to flee from big cities.(名词做主语)
3.To travel means to learn and to be wiser.(不定式做主语)
4.Fitting into a new environment quickly is a requirement for young people nowadays.(动名词做主语)
5.Why he did this is beyond me.(主语从句)
 
二、进行句子改写练习
在进行横向语法体系总结和复习之后,结合之前所学的纵向语法,句子如何进行改写就应该明了了:不同的句型替换与同样成分不同说法替换。
 
现在很多学生倾向于考前临时抱佛脚,在考试前大多会背很多词汇词组甚至句子,以为能够靠拼凑的句子模版得高分。然而,背来的句子首先不会fit in all conditions, 有可能跟学生写的文章内容有出入,甚至有些学生为了套用现成的句子对于句意不管不顾。所以在平时练习的时候,学生应从最简单基本的句子练起,对句子改写有基本的意识。在以后的练习中,对于自己的作文进行句子改写和文章优化,学生会在自我纠错自我否定的过程中进步迅速。
 
下面华威专家将结合具体的题目分析一下句子改写的方法:
一个女生孤独的时候,就想吃东西。
本能版:When a girl is lonely, she wants food.
修饰版:When a girl is lonely, she craves food.
被动版:Food is strongly desired for a lonely girl.
定从版:A girl who feels lonely has a longing for food.
主从版:It is hardly arguable that a girl desires food particularly much in lonely days.
主从版2: What a girl feels like having in lonely days is food.
宾从版:Lonely days mean a girl wants food more than ever.
表从版:Craving food is what a girl’s lonely days generate.
同位从版:In lonely days, a girl is stuck with the idea that food is needed.
强调句版:It is food that a girl so crazily desires when she is lonely.
倒装句版:Wanted is food in a girl’s lonely days.
双重否定:A girl cannot stop thinking of food when she is lonely.
双重否定+倒装:Hardly can a girl resist thinking about food in her lonely days.
 
在改写句子的过程中,句子本身的意思并没有改变,我们只是通过多种句式的灵活使用而不是夸张的词汇转换来制造出丰富多变的句子。而这种句式结构的多变,正是托福写作中必不可少的提分秘诀。

填写以下表单,报名
新雅思、托福、SAT备考资料。

最新培训课程